What will they tolerate? What they will they enjoy? Any number of physiological, psychological, cultural and climatic differences could tip the balance. At first, the purpose of thermal comfort standards was to define a universal range of temperatures that would apply to all people in all buildings in all climates at all times. These standards developed alongside air-conditioning technology and modernist architecture. Together they gave rise to the International Style.
Treasure J Why architects need to use their ears. TEDGlobal Talk. Lehanneur M Science-inspired design. Green J Are we filtering the wrong microbes? Coley DA, Hunt S, Mitchell A Acoustics in schools: explaining the options to architects by the use of approximate formulae and graphs, with a special emphasis on dining spaces.
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Accessed 06 Mar Pearson A Getting on the air … naturally. Feb issue. Noble C Commerzbank: a sustainable skyscraper. Architecture Accessed 12 Feb Commerzbank Headquarters. A sustainability framework with first class honours. Accessed 11 May Dec issue. Accessed 06 May BSI Constructing the business case — building information modelling. Alwaer H, Clements-Croome DJ Key performance indicators KPIs and priority setting in using the multi-attribute approach for assessing sustainable intelligent buildings. Strong D, Burrows V A whole-system approach to high-performance green buildings.
Artech House, Norwood Google Scholar. A stated objective of a residential estate market project in Shanghai in the nineties was to ensure that modern comfort is reachable by any Shanghai citizen. The paper considers which concept of well-being in the habitat underpinned the project, with which criteria the concept of comfort was evaluated, and which actions were taken to support the standardisation and diffusion of comfort.
Leaman, A. Bordass Comfort and Complexity: Unmanageable Bedfellows? Workplace Comfort Forum, May , London. The paper considers the relationship between complexity and comfort in office environments. The authors suggest that one of the best kept secrets of comfort research is that comfort is defined as the absence of discomfort. A logical consequence of this is that good buildings should have both comfort-provision and discomfort-alleviation strategies.
Naturally ventilated buildings are often richer in features for discomfort-alleviation. But the key to successful thermal performance also relates to the level of complexity. Efforts to meet individual comfort demands via flexibility increase complexity and mean that more things can go wrong.
Field surveys, they explain, reveal that the best work spaces are often those where variety is not excessive, and where systems are as simple as possible for people to manage and change. In providing adaptive opportunity, the authors conclude, it is important to take into account the social context of the whole building system and how this is viewed from the different perspectives of designers, managers and occupants. Lovins, A. E-Source Strategic Issues Paper. Boulder, CO.
Lovins reviews and summarises research on comfort and cooling, identifying a variety of different "comfort paradigms". The report is primarily concerned with how anomalies in the dominant engineering comfort model and findings from field studies and social science research raise questions about its validity. This is important, Lovins argues, because buildings constructed and HVAC systems specified using this model are likely to routinely waste a considerable amount of energy.
Lutzenhiser, L. A study of room air-conditioner use in Californian apartments. Families were interviewed and asked if they used manual or automatic controls on their wall unit air conditioners. Interviews revealed a variety of control strategies and patterns of air-conditioner use that.
Hackett, et al. An evaluation of the socio-technical impediments to and opportunities for the adoption of alternative cooling technologies in California. The authors emphasise that end-users are not the only influential actors in the uptake of new cooling technologies and that due regard needs to be taken of the role of organisational actors that manage the distribution networks through which technologies are transferred.
New cooling technologies must also "fit into" existing building technologies, practices and settlement patterns.
The report also reviews the relevance of contributions to the comfort literature in accounting for the social and cultural contexts in which cooling technologies develop. Markham, S. Climate and the Energy of Nations. Oxford, Oxford University Press. Expresses the idea that ancient civilizations developed in areas of equable climate along 70o isotherm and discusses the heating arrangements of early civilisations. Markus, T.
Naturally Ventilated Buildings: Building for the senses, the economy and society - CRC Press Book. Naturally Ventilated Buildings: Building for the senses, the economy and Building for the senses, the economy and society, 1st Edition While there are many historical examples of successful naturally ventilated buildings, standards for.
Morris Buildings, Climate and Energy. London, Pitman. McGeever, P.
He was thought to be about 12 years old when found and might have been living in the woods for about 6 years. Further assumptions have to be made with regard to metabolic heat generation for various activities. Thesis, Cambridge University—unpublished. Where one serves to increase cognition, the other facilitates recognition. The sensory organs process the signals and effect transmission to the brain.
The paper provides field evidence to point out some discrepancies between laboratory predictions of thermal comfort and actual responses. Some discrepancies may be due to seasonal distortions of the rating scales in common use. McGeevor shows how people are active and adaptive agents, capable of constructing their own definitions of what comfort means to them and of controlling their own immediate environment.
He concludes that more than a 7 point scale is needed to define and tackle the problem of indoor comfort. McIntyre, D. Indoor Climate, Applied Science Publishers. An historical review of technical research on thermal comfort that summarises the state of physical, physiological and psychological knowledge about the effects of indoor climate on man.
Meyer considers the relationship between indoor climate and climate change. Two schools of thought in thermal comfort research are reviewed: one which sees comfort as governed by a common and fixed human preference, the other as strongly influenced by highly variable habits and expectations. The paper examines these theories in respect of an episode of major and rapid indoor climate change - a sharp rise in winter temperatures that occurred in the northern US in the first half of the nineteenth century. The validity of different thermal comfort perspectives is considered and the value of such a study for informing projections of future climatic change is discussed.
Milne, G. Boardman It has been reported that low income households often take a high proportion of potential energy savings as improvements in comfort - the so-called "takeback" effect. For example, energy efficiency improvements such as cavity wall insulation or double glazing may mean that households are able to heat their homes to a higher level for the same cost. This paper examines the results of a number of energy efficiency projects in the UK over the past 20 years to try and determine the most important influences on temperature takeback.
It is estimated that in houses warmed to about The authors suggest that current low levels of warmth for many low-income households will mean that investment in the energy efficiency of the UK housing stock will fail to achieve predicted energy savings for at least another 15 years. Newburgh, L. Physiology of heat regulation and the science of clothing. New York, Hafner Publishing.
An edited collection of physiological studies that examine the relation between the heat balance of bodies and clothing in a variety of climates and contexts e. The book examines how unfavourable environmental conditions can be mitigated by the use of protective clothing. Nicol, F. Humphreys The paper explains the origins and development of the adaptive approach to thermal comfort.
Recent developments in the theory of adaptive comfort are described and recommendations made about how these might be applied in the field of building practice and in designing thermal standards for sustainable buildings. Humphreys, et al. Standards for Thermal Comfort: Indoor air temperature standards for the 21st Century. A collection of papers contributing to the representation of thermal comfort as an adaptive and dynamic process in which individuals regulate their own micro-environment.
The scope for incorporating climatic, cultural and environmental variables into the assessment of thermal comfort is discussed as are methodologies through which future adaptive standards of thermal comfort might be developed and established. Kessler An occupant survey of perceptions of summertime comfort among staff in an Open University building. Perceptions of comfort and buildings are shown to change with time and weather.
Well-designed natural ventilation systems that allow staff to self-regulate are considered better overall. Potential for adaptation and perceptions of thermal control change over time. Nicol, J.
McCartney An assessment of the scope for 'adaptive opportunity' the ability of occupants to avoid discomfort in 5 air-conditioned and naturally ventilated office buildings in Oxford and Aberdeen. The authors ask whether the scope for adaptive opportunity relates to physical control options or social context e. Longitudinal and transverse survey responses reveal that a complex interaction occurs involving the building, the changing attitude of occupants and the availability of controls. Impressions of levels of discomfort are also shown to relate to the type of survey method used.
The possibility of developing an adaptive algorithm to control indoor temperature in buildings is explored. Raja, et al. Examines the premise that people adapt to the temperatures they experience and are comfortable over a greater range of temperatures than current international standards suggest e. The study shows how workers experience a wide range of temperatures and reviews strategies of adaptation changing clothes, switching on fans, opening windows taken to alleviate discomfort. Results are used to help develop guidelines for setting standards that account for local climatic conditions, fashions and customs.
Nikolopoulou, M. Investigations of thermal comfort conditions in outdoor spaces have revealed that whilst quantitative microclimatic parameters strongly influence thermal sensation, they cannot fully account for the wide variation between objective and subjective comfort evaluation. The paper considers parameters of psychological adaptation e. Olgyay, V.
Design with climate: bioclimatic approach to architectural regionalism, Princeton University Press. One of the key texts exploring the influence of climate on building principles. Olgyay synthesises biological, meteorological and engineering concepts to develop a framework for architectural design. The importance of different both physiological and cultural influences on the development of building styles in different bio-climatic regimes is discussed.
Oseland, N. Oseland notes that past thermal comfort research has shown differences in the thermal sensation votes given in laboratories and field settings, but that such studies tend to compare the votes of different groups of people in different environments rather than comparing the same people in each. To address this issue, a study of 30 employees from the UK's Building Research Establishment is described that examines the thermal comfort sensations of the subjects in their homes, offices and in comfort chambers.
Each employee is required to spend 3 hours engaged in only sedentary activities and wearing the same clothing in each environment, with temperature adjusted in the range o C. The study shows that the observed neutral temperature for each of the subjects differed by up to 2 o C and were up to 1 o C different to those predicted using ISO In a second phase, clothing and activity restrictions were removed and observed thermal comfort sensations were very poorly correlated with those predicted.
Trends in Thermal Comfort Research. A review of thermal comfort research from the s and early s. Developments in physiological and psychological research are discussed that raise questions about the validity of existing models e. The report also evaluates more recent studies that explore the relation between thermal comfort and energy conservation, in light of the energy crisis of the s and concerns over global warming. Oyeniyi, M.
Describes how climate and requirements for thermal comfort influence building patterns in different climatic regions. It is argued that standards of comfort are relative and are influenced by a variety of social, cultural and economic factors. Paciuk, M. A study of occupants in ten office buildings in Haifa, Israel shows how personal comfort is regulated using mechanisms of individual control over the thermal environment. The analysis shows a strong relationship between perceived control of the thermal environment and occupant satisfaction.
Thermal comfort is viewed as a situation specific process that is constantly redefined by individuals. Parsons, K. Human Thermal Environments: the effects of hot, moderate and cold environments on human health, comfort and performance. London, Taylor and Francis. Pauken, M. A historical account describing the progression of cooling and air-conditioning technologies in the home. Pauken suggests that the development of air-conditioning was linked to major shifts in the demographics of the US e.
Air-conditioning is seen to have "tamed" hot and humid summer conditions bringing prosperity to business owners and individuals. The paper describes the application of a variety of cooling innovations e. Most people, Pauken concludes, can now afford to sleep comfortably on the hottest summer nights and feel refreshed throughout the day thanks to the efforts of countless people working in the air-conditioning industry.
Peach, J. The author considers how 'conscious conservation' in naturally ventilated buildings can be achieved whilst maintaining comfortable conditions. Pretlove, S. Oreszczyn Buildings are designed for a specific climate, yet they often have a lifetime of more than years. Climate change may require buildings to operate over a range of climatic conditions. The paper investigates the impact that climate change may have on the design and performance of buildings, examining the specific effects of changes in temperature and solar radiation on energy use.
Evidence is presented that suggests a proportion of the benefits of milder winters may be taken as improved comfort rather than reduced energy use. If such trends are not taken into account, it is argued that designers may adopt solutions that are inappropriate for future energy use. Prins, G. An essay about the cultural origins of American society's large-scale conditioning of air. Prins presents an argument about the moral and philosophical implications of America's "addiction" to coolth and how it might be possible to move onto more environmentally-friendly "post-coolth" technologies.
Quigley, J. Rubinfeld The paper examines the effects of changes in energy prices on residential energy consumption and on the production of thermal comfort. The authors show how households substitute between comfort and other forms of household consumption in order to maximise well being. Rajala, N. Rapoport, A. House Form and Culture. Rapoport considers the importance of social and cultural factors in shaping house form across the world, rejecting a "physical deterministic" view based on the idea of progressive development towards an ideal environment.
To bring order to this complex field, he argues it is necessary to cross the disciplines of architecture, cultural geography, urban planning and anthropology. Alternative theories of house form are reviewed that show how issues of physical comfort or climatic adaptation are not the only forces shaping dwellings.
For example, the spread of European style houses in North Africa is connected with issues of status and modernity. Vernacular architecture and the cultural determinants of form. Buildings and Society: Essays on the social development of the built environment.
Explores the importance of folk theories in the design of the built environment. Cultural milieus, it is argued have been ignored in favour of western traditions. Moreover, there is a need to view built environments as more than shelter and appreciate their significance as safe places and as expressions of status and identity. By viewing humble dwellings as cultural phenomena, Rapoport argues that it is possible to gain a better understanding of conditions and situations where the built environment works well.
Reddy, T. Norford, et al. In the US, the residential air-conditioning load is a significant component of peak electricity demand on hot summer afternoons. The paper examines opportunities for peak shaving shifting air-conditioning demand to off-peak periods using modern electronics and the intelligent use of the thermal mass structure inherent in the structure and furnishings of the home. Reynolds, J. Courtyards: aesthetic, social and thermal delight. New York, John Wiley. The book describes the design of courtyards in different cultures and their role in supporting the rituals of everyday life.
Courtyards offer a variety of ways of adapting to climatic conditions. For example, when the climate is very cold the fire and hearth are positioned at the centre of buildings, when the climate is hot and dry courtyards offer a shaded fountain at the centre. Roberts, B. The Quest for Comfort. Rohles, F. Rohles reviews a number of field studies that address the psychology of comfort. For example, he shows how under identical temperature conditions, certain furnishings e. Laviana Reviews the current "state of the art" in methods for measuring how people feel in indoor environments.
ASHRAE defined thermal sensation and comfort scales and recent modifications that account for thermal dissatisfaction are considered. The authors consider the effectiveness of different scales in measuring subjective feelings of comfort and discomfort. Rohracher, H. As such, new construction technologies and building components might reduce the ecological load of buildings to a fraction of its present value. Rohracher argues that the problem of making building stock more sustainable is only to a minor extent a technical one. More important is changing the social context and socio-technical processes involved in the construction of sustainable buildings.
A number of strategies to manage technical change towards sustainability are discussed, including: better integration of supply chain actors; the shift to a market for innovative and ecological building services; and, the integration of consumers into the innovation process. Ruck, N. Building Design and Human Performance.
New York, van Nostrand Reinhold. An edited collection exploring the relationship between human well-being and performance in building design. In the introduction, Ruck argues that the current theory that "perfect comfort" can be achieved by finding the temperature in which the largest number of people are comfortable is unresponsive to human needs and notes people's dissatisfaction with the "boring uniformity of air-conditioning".
Further contributions discuss how buildings might be designed to allow heating, ventilation, cooling and lighting adjustments in response to people's changing needs and desires. Rudge, J. Nicol, Eds. Cutting the Cost of Cold. Rybczynski, W. Home: A short history of an idea. Harmondsworth, Penguin Books. Rybczynski comments on the poverty of architectural ideas about meanings of comfort and asks: what is comfort beyond "the comfort zone". Focusing on domestic comfort and the idea of home, he explores how comfort is a multi-faceted concept relating to the historical development of ideas about privacy, domesticity, efficiency, ease, austerity, commodity, etc.
Only in the 18th Century did comfort come to be associated with the idea of 'cosiness' and thermal contentment. More recently, comfort has come to be associated with functional efficiency, related to the development of scientific theories of light and air, and technologies for ventilation and air-conditioning. Rybczynski concludes that cultural ideas like comfort have a life that is measured in centuries and to address the question "what is comfort" it is necessary to understand its complex evolution rather than accept dominant physiological or psychological definitions.
Saleh, M. The paper considers the forces behind the decline, transformation and rise of vernacular architecture and urban form in the southwest of Saudi Arabia. Saleh argues that the cultural heritage of these forms of architecture has been bypassed in the rush to modernise. A more appropriate approach to planning and design would be to renew awareness of social and cultural aspects embodied in vernacular architecture rather than rely on 'imported' notions about user requirements and individual comfort.
Salvage, A. London, Age Concern England. Salvage investigates the problem of the "old and the cold" in Britain: how do elderly people manage to deal with cold weather?
Results of a questionnaire survey suggest that many elderly people live in temperatures lower than those officially recommended, and that many of them feel cold during the winter months. Another of the issues considered is whether existing thermal comfort standards for homes are adequate for the elderly or whether older people might need higher temperatures than younger people because of decreasing metabolic heat production and reduced activity rates.
Saunders, T. The Boiled Frog Syndrome: Your health and the built environment. London, John Wiley. As the water gets warmer, the frog adjusts its body temperature and continues to adjust to the increasing water temperature until, ultimately the frog is boiled alive". Saunders suggests that like the frog, human beings keep adjusting to increasing health and ecological hazards in order to satisfy expectations and demands for improved comfort, greater convenience and easier living. The book reviews some of the everyday hazards and risks associated with the built environment e.
The value of more traditional and holistic ideologies about architecture and design are explored as alternative framework for designing buildings. Saunders concludes that 'ordinary people' need to challenge architects to provide healthy environments in which to live and work. Scott, D. Parker, et al. A study of underlying factors that influence three types of energy consumption behaviours technology investment, management and curtailment in households in Ontario, Canada.
The authors report that energy use curtailment behaviours were more strongly influenced by "personal norms" environmental attitudes and social responsibility , while energy efficient technology investments were "predicted more by pragmatic factors like a desire for increased home comfort". Semenza, J. An epidemiological study of the Chicago heat wave of , which shows that those at greatest risk of dying were people with medical illnesses who were socially isolated and did not have access to air-conditioning.
The study also found that people who lived in apartments without air conditioning had a lower risk if they had access to an air-conditioned lobby. Sherratt, A. Air-conditioning: Impact on the built environment. London, Century Hutchinson Ltd. A series of papers focusing on the commercial and technical development of air-conditioning and trends in the UK.
In chapter 1, Gillingham explores the ever expanding market for air-conditioning, noting that "the debate is increasingly on how well air-conditioning should be done, in relation to the balance between capital and running costs, rather than on whether air-conditioning is needed". Various trends in air-conditioning applications and markets are discussed. For example, in offices the increased uptake of equipment, such as computers, is driving the demand for more ventilation and cooling. Elsewhere, in the retail sector, energy for cooling and moving air now amounts to Shimoda, Y.
Climate change is expected to exacerbate the existing heat island effect in Japanese cities. The author examines how increases in temperature will influence urban micro-climates and patterns of energy and water consumption, human health and comfort. Some of the possible adaptation measures that might be needed to alleviate the effects of changing climatic conditions are discussed. Shohl Wagner, B. The warm room retrofit study examines how to stay warm in a large poorly insulated house during the coldest parts of winter, a problem especially acute for low income and elderly.
The paper describes how 9 homes were retrofitted to provide warm zones and evaluates how the measures installed helped to improve the comfort of residents. Shove, E. Comfort, cleanliness and convenience: the social organisation of normality. Oxford, Berg. Shove examines how, over the past few generations, expectations of comfort have altered radically, and considers the implications for the organisation of everyday life.